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H5HG.c

/* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
 * Copyright by the Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois.         *
 * All rights reserved.                                                      *
 *                                                                           *
 * This file is part of HDF5.  The full HDF5 copyright notice, including     *
 * terms governing use, modification, and redistribution, is contained in    *
 * the files COPYING and Copyright.html.  COPYING can be found at the root   *
 * of the source code distribution tree; Copyright.html can be found at the  *
 * root level of an installed copy of the electronic HDF5 document set and   *
 * is linked from the top-level documents page.  It can also be found at     *
 * http://hdf.ncsa.uiuc.edu/HDF5/doc/Copyright.html.  If you do not have     *
 * access to either file, you may request a copy from hdfhelp@ncsa.uiuc.edu. *
 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * */

/*
 * Programmer:  Robb Matzke <matzke@llnl.gov>
 *              Friday, March 27, 1998
 *
 * Purpose: Operations on the global heap.  The global heap is the set of
 *          all collections and each collection contains one or more
 *          global heap objects.  An object belongs to exactly one
 *          collection.  A collection is treated as an atomic entity for
 *          the purposes of I/O and caching.
 *
 *          Each file has a small cache of global heap collections called
 *          the CWFS list and recently accessed collections with free
 *          space appear on this list.  As collections are accessed the
 *          collection is moved toward the front of the list.  New
 *          collections are added to the front of the list while old
 *          collections are added to the end of the list.
 *
 *          The collection model reduces the overhead which would be
 *          incurred if the global heap were a single object, and the
 *          CWFS list allows the library to cheaply choose a collection
 *          for a new object based on object size, amount of free space
 *          in the collection, and temporal locality.
 */

#define H5F_PACKAGE           /*suppress error about including H5Fpkg     */

#include "H5private.h"        /* Generic Functions                */
#include "H5ACprivate.h"      /* Metadata cache             */
#include "H5Eprivate.h"       /* Error handling             */
#include "H5Fpkg.h"             /* File access                    */
#include "H5FLprivate.h"      /* Free lists                           */
#include "H5HGprivate.h"      /* Global heaps                     */
#include "H5MFprivate.h"      /* File memory management           */
#include "H5MMprivate.h"      /* Memory management                */

/* Pablo information */
#define PABLO_MASK      H5HG_mask

/* Private macros */

/*
 * Global heap collection version.
 */
#define H5HG_VERSION    1

/*
 * Pad all global heap messages to a multiple of eight bytes so we can load
 * the entire collection into memory and operate on it there.  Eight should
 * be sufficient for machines that have alignment constraints because our
 * largest data type is eight bytes.
 */
#define H5HG_ALIGNMENT  8
#define H5HG_ALIGN(X)   (H5HG_ALIGNMENT*(((X)+H5HG_ALIGNMENT-1)/        \
                               H5HG_ALIGNMENT))
#define H5HG_ISALIGNED(X) ((X)==H5HG_ALIGN(X))

/*
 * All global heap collections are at least this big.  This allows us to read
 * most collections with a single read() since we don't have to read a few
 * bytes of header to figure out the size.  If the heap is larger than this
 * then a second read gets the rest after we've decoded the header.
 */
#define H5HG_MINSIZE    4096

/*
 * Maximum length of the CWFS list, the list of remembered collections that
 * have free space.
 */
#define H5HG_NCWFS      16

/*
 * The maximum number of links allowed to a global heap object.
 */
#define H5HG_MAXLINK    65535

/*
 * The size of the collection header, always a multiple of the alignment so
 * that the stuff that follows the header is aligned.
 */
#define H5HG_SIZEOF_HDR(f)                                        \
    H5HG_ALIGN(4 +                  /*magic number          */          \
             1 +              /*version number  */          \
             3 +              /*reserved        */          \
             H5F_SIZEOF_SIZE(f))    /*collection size */

/*
 * The overhead associated with each object in the heap, always a multiple of
 * the alignment so that the stuff that follows the header is aligned.
 */
#define H5HG_SIZEOF_OBJHDR(f)                                     \
    H5HG_ALIGN(2 +                  /*object id number      */          \
             2 +              /*reference count */          \
             4 +              /*reserved        */          \
             H5F_SIZEOF_SIZE(f))    /*object data size      */

/*
 * The initial guess for the number of messages in a collection.  We assume
 * that all objects in that collection are zero length, giving the maximum
 * possible number of objects in the collection.  The collection itself has
 * some overhead and each message has some overhead.  The `+2' accounts for
 * rounding and for the free space object.
 */
#define H5HG_NOBJS(f,z) (int)((((z)-H5HG_SIZEOF_HDR(f))/                \
                         H5HG_SIZEOF_OBJHDR(f)+2))

/*
 * Makes a global heap object pointer undefined, or checks whether one is
 * defined.
 */
#define H5HG_undef(HGP) ((HGP)->idx=0)
#define H5HG_defined(HGP) ((HGP)->idx!=0)

/* Private typedefs */

typedef struct H5HG_obj_t {
    int           nrefs;            /*reference count       */
    size_t        size;       /*total size of object        */
    uint8_t       *begin;           /*ptr to object into heap->chunk*/
} H5HG_obj_t;

struct H5HG_heap_t {
    H5AC_info_t cache_info; /* Information for H5AC cache functions, _must_ be */
                            /* first field in structure */
    haddr_t       addr;       /*collection address          */
    size_t        size;       /*total size of collection    */
    uint8_t       *chunk;           /*the collection, incl. header      */
    size_t        nalloc;           /*numb object slots allocated */
    H5HG_obj_t    *obj;       /*array of object descriptions      */
};

/* PRIVATE PROTOTYPES */
static H5HG_heap_t *H5HG_create(H5F_t *f, hid_t dxpl_id, size_t size);
#ifdef NOT_YET
static void *H5HG_peek(H5F_t *f, hid_t dxpl_id, H5HG_t *hobj);
#endif /* NOT_YET */

/* Metadata cache callbacks */
static H5HG_heap_t *H5HG_load(H5F_t *f, hid_t dxpl_id, haddr_t addr, const void *udata1,
                        void *udata2);
static herr_t H5HG_flush(H5F_t *f, hid_t dxpl_id, hbool_t dest, haddr_t addr,
                   H5HG_heap_t *heap);
static herr_t H5HG_dest(H5F_t *f, H5HG_heap_t *heap);
static herr_t H5HG_clear(H5HG_heap_t *heap);

/*
 * H5HG inherits cache-like properties from H5AC
 */
static const H5AC_class_t H5AC_GHEAP[1] = {{
    H5AC_GHEAP_ID,
    (H5AC_load_func_t)H5HG_load,
    (H5AC_flush_func_t)H5HG_flush,
    (H5AC_dest_func_t)H5HG_dest,
    (H5AC_clear_func_t)H5HG_clear,
}};

/* Interface initialization */
static int interface_initialize_g = 0;
#define INTERFACE_INIT NULL

/* Declare a free list to manage the H5HG_t struct */
H5FL_DEFINE_STATIC(H5HG_heap_t);

/* Declare a free list to manage arrays of H5HG_obj_t's */
H5FL_ARR_DEFINE_STATIC(H5HG_obj_t,-1);

/* Declare a PQ free list to manage heap chunks */
H5FL_BLK_DEFINE_STATIC(heap_chunk);


/*-------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Function:      H5HG_create
 *
 * Purpose: Creates a global heap collection of the specified size.  If
 *          SIZE is less than some minimum it will be readjusted.  The
 *          new collection is allocated in the file and added to the
 *          beginning of the CWFS list.
 *
 * Return:  Success:    Ptr to a cached heap.  The pointer is valid
 *                      only until some other hdf5 library function
 *                      is called.
 *
 *          Failure:    NULL
 *
 * Programmer:    Robb Matzke
 *              Friday, March 27, 1998
 *
 * Modifications:
 *
 *-------------------------------------------------------------------------
 */
static H5HG_heap_t *
H5HG_create (H5F_t *f, hid_t dxpl_id, size_t size)
{
    H5HG_heap_t   *heap = NULL;
    H5HG_heap_t   *ret_value = NULL;
    uint8_t *p = NULL;
    haddr_t addr;
    size_t  n;
    
    FUNC_ENTER_NOAPI(H5HG_create, NULL);

    /* Check args */
    assert (f);
    if (size<H5HG_MINSIZE)
        size = H5HG_MINSIZE;
    size = H5HG_ALIGN(size);

    /* Create it */
    H5_CHECK_OVERFLOW(size,size_t,hsize_t);
    if (HADDR_UNDEF==(addr=H5MF_alloc(f, H5FD_MEM_GHEAP, dxpl_id, (hsize_t)size)))
      HGOTO_ERROR (H5E_HEAP, H5E_CANTINIT, NULL, "unable to allocate file space for global heap");
    if (NULL==(heap = H5FL_CALLOC (H5HG_heap_t)))
      HGOTO_ERROR (H5E_RESOURCE, H5E_NOSPACE, NULL, "memory allocation failed");
    heap->addr = addr;
    heap->size = size;
    heap->cache_info.dirty = TRUE;
    if (NULL==(heap->chunk = H5FL_BLK_MALLOC (heap_chunk,size)))
      HGOTO_ERROR (H5E_RESOURCE, H5E_NOSPACE, NULL, "memory allocation failed");
    heap->nalloc = H5HG_NOBJS (f, size);
    if (NULL==(heap->obj = H5FL_ARR_CALLOC (H5HG_obj_t,heap->nalloc)))
      HGOTO_ERROR (H5E_RESOURCE, H5E_NOSPACE, NULL, "memory allocation failed");

    /* Initialize the header */
    HDmemcpy (heap->chunk, H5HG_MAGIC, H5HG_SIZEOF_MAGIC);
    p = heap->chunk + H5HG_SIZEOF_MAGIC;
    *p++ = H5HG_VERSION;
    *p++ = 0; /*reserved*/
    *p++ = 0; /*reserved*/
    *p++ = 0; /*reserved*/
    H5F_ENCODE_LENGTH (f, p, size);

    /*
     * Padding so free space object is aligned. If malloc returned memory
     * which was always at least H5HG_ALIGNMENT aligned then we could just
     * align the pointer, but this might not be the case.
     */
    n = H5HG_ALIGN(p-heap->chunk) - (p-heap->chunk);
    HDmemset(p, 0, n);
    p += n;

    /* The freespace object */
    heap->obj[0].size = size - H5HG_SIZEOF_HDR(f);
    assert(H5HG_ISALIGNED(heap->obj[0].size));
    heap->obj[0].begin = p;
    UINT16ENCODE(p, 0); /*object ID*/
    UINT16ENCODE(p, 0); /*reference count*/
    UINT32ENCODE(p, 0); /*reserved*/
    H5F_ENCODE_LENGTH (f, p, heap->obj[0].size);
    HDmemset (p, 0, (size_t)((heap->chunk+heap->size) - p));

    /* Add the heap to the cache */
    if (H5AC_set (f, dxpl_id, H5AC_GHEAP, addr, heap)<0)
      HGOTO_ERROR (H5E_HEAP, H5E_CANTINIT, NULL, "unable to cache global heap collection");

    /* Add this heap to the beginning of the CWFS list */
    if (NULL==f->shared->cwfs) {
      f->shared->cwfs = H5MM_malloc (H5HG_NCWFS * sizeof(H5HG_heap_t*));
      if (NULL==(f->shared->cwfs))
          HGOTO_ERROR (H5E_RESOURCE, H5E_NOSPACE, NULL, "memory allocation failed");
      f->shared->cwfs[0] = heap;
      f->shared->ncwfs = 1;
    } else {
      HDmemmove (f->shared->cwfs+1, f->shared->cwfs, MIN (f->shared->ncwfs, H5HG_NCWFS-1)*sizeof(H5HG_heap_t*));
      f->shared->cwfs[0] = heap;
      f->shared->ncwfs = MIN (H5HG_NCWFS, f->shared->ncwfs+1);
    }

    ret_value = heap;

done:
    if (!ret_value && heap) {
        if(H5HG_dest(f,heap)<0)
          HDONE_ERROR(H5E_HEAP, H5E_CANTFREE, NULL, "unable to destroy global heap collection");
    }
    FUNC_LEAVE_NOAPI(ret_value);
}


/*-------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Function:      H5HG_load
 *
 * Purpose: Loads a global heap collection from disk.
 *
 * Return:  Success:    Ptr to a global heap collection.
 *
 *          Failure:    NULL
 *
 * Programmer:    Robb Matzke
 *              Friday, March 27, 1998
 *
 * Modifications:
 *          Robb Matzke, 1999-07-28
 *          The ADDR argument is passed by value.
 *
 *    Quincey Koziol, 2002-7-180
 *    Added dxpl parameter to allow more control over I/O from metadata
 *      cache.
 *-------------------------------------------------------------------------
 */
static H5HG_heap_t *
H5HG_load (H5F_t *f, hid_t dxpl_id, haddr_t addr, const void UNUSED * udata1,
         void UNUSED * udata2)
{
    H5HG_heap_t   *heap = NULL;
    H5HG_heap_t   *ret_value = NULL;
    uint8_t *p = NULL;
    int     i;
    size_t  nalloc, need;
    
    FUNC_ENTER_NOAPI(H5HG_load, NULL);

    /* check arguments */
    assert (f);
    assert (H5F_addr_defined (addr));
    assert (!udata1);
    assert (!udata2);

    /* Read the initial 4k page */
    if (NULL==(heap = H5FL_CALLOC (H5HG_heap_t)))
      HGOTO_ERROR (H5E_RESOURCE, H5E_NOSPACE, NULL, "memory allocation failed");
    heap->addr = addr;
    if (NULL==(heap->chunk = H5FL_BLK_MALLOC (heap_chunk,H5HG_MINSIZE)))
      HGOTO_ERROR (H5E_RESOURCE, H5E_NOSPACE, NULL, "memory allocation failed");
    if (H5F_block_read(f, H5FD_MEM_GHEAP, addr, H5HG_MINSIZE, dxpl_id, heap->chunk)<0)
      HGOTO_ERROR (H5E_HEAP, H5E_READERROR, NULL, "unable to read global heap collection");

    /* Magic number */
    if (HDmemcmp (heap->chunk, H5HG_MAGIC, H5HG_SIZEOF_MAGIC))
      HGOTO_ERROR (H5E_HEAP, H5E_CANTLOAD, NULL, "bad global heap collection signature");
    p = heap->chunk + H5HG_SIZEOF_MAGIC;

    /* Version */
    if (H5HG_VERSION!=*p++)
      HGOTO_ERROR (H5E_HEAP, H5E_CANTLOAD, NULL, "wrong version number in global heap");

    /* Reserved */
    p += 3;

    /* Size */
    H5F_DECODE_LENGTH (f, p, heap->size);
    assert (heap->size>=H5HG_MINSIZE);

    /*
     * If we didn't read enough in the first try, then read the rest of the
     * collection now.
     */
    if (heap->size > H5HG_MINSIZE) {
      haddr_t next_addr = addr + (hsize_t)H5HG_MINSIZE;
      if (NULL==(heap->chunk = H5FL_BLK_REALLOC (heap_chunk, heap->chunk, heap->size)))
          HGOTO_ERROR (H5E_RESOURCE, H5E_NOSPACE, NULL, "memory allocation failed");
      if (H5F_block_read (f, H5FD_MEM_GHEAP, next_addr, (heap->size-H5HG_MINSIZE), dxpl_id, heap->chunk+H5HG_MINSIZE)<0)
          HGOTO_ERROR (H5E_HEAP, H5E_READERROR, NULL, "unable to read global heap collection");
    }

    /* Decode each object */
    p = heap->chunk + H5HG_SIZEOF_HDR (f);
    nalloc = H5HG_NOBJS (f, heap->size);
    if (NULL==(heap->obj = H5FL_ARR_CALLOC (H5HG_obj_t,nalloc)))
      HGOTO_ERROR (H5E_RESOURCE, H5E_NOSPACE, NULL, "memory allocation failed");
    heap->nalloc = nalloc;
    while (p<heap->chunk+heap->size) {
      if (p+H5HG_SIZEOF_OBJHDR(f)>heap->chunk+heap->size) {
          /*
           * The last bit of space is too tiny for an object header, so we
           * assume that it's free space.
           */
          assert (NULL==heap->obj[0].begin);
          heap->obj[0].size = (heap->chunk+heap->size) - p;
          heap->obj[0].begin = p;
          p += heap->obj[0].size;
      } else {
          unsigned idx;
          uint8_t *begin = p;

          UINT16DECODE (p, idx);
          assert (idx<heap->nalloc);
          assert (NULL==heap->obj[idx].begin);
          UINT16DECODE (p, heap->obj[idx].nrefs);
          p += 4; /*reserved*/
          H5F_DECODE_LENGTH (f, p, heap->obj[idx].size);
          heap->obj[idx].begin = begin;
          /*
           * The total storage size includes the size of the object header
           * and is zero padded so the next object header is properly
           * aligned. The last bit of space is the free space object whose
           * size is never padded and already includes the object header.
           */
          if (idx>0) {
            need = H5HG_SIZEOF_OBJHDR(f) + H5HG_ALIGN(heap->obj[idx].size);
          } else {
            need = heap->obj[idx].size;
          }
          p = begin + need;
      }
    }
    assert(p==heap->chunk+heap->size);
    assert(H5HG_ISALIGNED(heap->obj[0].size));

    /*
     * Add the new heap to the CWFS list, removing some other entry if
     * necessary to make room. We remove the right-most entry that has less
     * free space than this heap.
     */
    if (heap->obj[0].size>0) {
      if (!f->shared->cwfs) {
          f->shared->cwfs = H5MM_malloc (H5HG_NCWFS*sizeof(H5HG_heap_t*));
          if (NULL==f->shared->cwfs)
            HGOTO_ERROR (H5E_RESOURCE, H5E_NOSPACE, NULL, "memory allocation failed");
          f->shared->ncwfs = 1;
          f->shared->cwfs[0] = heap;
      } else if (H5HG_NCWFS==f->shared->ncwfs) {
          for (i=H5HG_NCWFS-1; i>=0; --i) {
            if (f->shared->cwfs[i]->obj[0].size < heap->obj[0].size) {
                HDmemmove (f->shared->cwfs+1, f->shared->cwfs, i * sizeof(H5HG_heap_t*));
                f->shared->cwfs[0] = heap;
                break;
            }
          }
      } else {
          HDmemmove (f->shared->cwfs+1, f->shared->cwfs, f->shared->ncwfs*sizeof(H5HG_heap_t*));
          f->shared->ncwfs += 1;
          f->shared->cwfs[0] = heap;
      }
    }
    
    ret_value = heap;
    
done:
    if (!ret_value && heap) {
        if(H5HG_dest(f,heap)<0)
          HDONE_ERROR(H5E_HEAP, H5E_CANTFREE, NULL, "unable to destroy global heap collection");
    }
    FUNC_LEAVE_NOAPI(ret_value);
}


/*-------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Function:      H5HG_flush
 *
 * Purpose: Flushes a global heap collection from memory to disk if it's
 *          dirty.  Optionally deletes teh heap from memory.
 *
 * Return:  Non-negative on success/Negative on failure
 *
 * Programmer:    Robb Matzke
 *              Friday, March 27, 1998
 *
 * Modifications:
 *          Robb Matzke, 1999-07-28
 *          The ADDR argument is passed by value.
 *
 *    Quincey Koziol, 2002-7-180
 *    Added dxpl parameter to allow more control over I/O from metadata
 *      cache.
 *-------------------------------------------------------------------------
 */
static herr_t
H5HG_flush (H5F_t *f, hid_t dxpl_id, hbool_t destroy, haddr_t addr, H5HG_heap_t *heap)
{
    herr_t      ret_value=SUCCEED;       /* Return value */
    
    FUNC_ENTER_NOAPI(H5HG_flush, FAIL);

    /* Check arguments */
    assert (f);
    assert (H5F_addr_defined (addr));
    assert (H5F_addr_eq (addr, heap->addr));
    assert (heap);

    if (heap->cache_info.dirty) {
      if (H5F_block_write (f, H5FD_MEM_GHEAP, addr, heap->size, dxpl_id, heap->chunk)<0)
          HGOTO_ERROR (H5E_HEAP, H5E_WRITEERROR, FAIL, "unable to write global heap collection to file");
      heap->cache_info.dirty = 0;
    }

    if (destroy) {
        if(H5HG_dest(f,heap)<0)
          HGOTO_ERROR(H5E_HEAP, H5E_CANTFREE, FAIL, "unable to destroy global heap collection");
    }

done:
    FUNC_LEAVE_NOAPI(ret_value);
}


/*-------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Function:      H5HG_dest
 *
 * Purpose: Destroys a global heap collection in memory
 *
 * Return:  Non-negative on success/Negative on failure
 *
 * Programmer:    Quincey Koziol
 *              Wednesday, January 15, 2003
 *
 * Modifications:
 *
 *-------------------------------------------------------------------------
 */
static herr_t
H5HG_dest (H5F_t *f, H5HG_heap_t *heap)
{
    int           i;
    
    FUNC_ENTER_NOAPI_NOINIT_NOFUNC(H5HG_dest);

    /* Check arguments */
    assert (heap);

    /* Verify that node is clean */
    assert (heap->cache_info.dirty==0);

    for (i=0; i<f->shared->ncwfs; i++) {
        if (f->shared->cwfs[i]==heap) {
            f->shared->ncwfs -= 1;
            HDmemmove (f->shared->cwfs+i, f->shared->cwfs+i+1, (f->shared->ncwfs-i) * sizeof(H5HG_heap_t*));
            break;
        }
    }
    heap->chunk = H5FL_BLK_FREE(heap_chunk,heap->chunk);
    heap->obj = H5FL_ARR_FREE(H5HG_obj_t,heap->obj);
    H5FL_FREE (H5HG_heap_t,heap);

    FUNC_LEAVE_NOAPI(SUCCEED);
} /* H5HG_dest() */


/*-------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Function:      H5HG_clear
 *
 * Purpose: Mark a global heap in memory as non-dirty.
 *
 * Return:  Non-negative on success/Negative on failure
 *
 * Programmer:    Quincey Koziol
 *              Thursday, March 20, 2003
 *
 * Modifications:
 *
 *-------------------------------------------------------------------------
 */
static herr_t
H5HG_clear(H5HG_heap_t *heap)
{
    FUNC_ENTER_NOAPI_NOINIT_NOFUNC(H5HG_clear);

    /* Check arguments */
    assert (heap);

    /* Mark heap as clean */
    heap->cache_info.dirty = 0;

    FUNC_LEAVE_NOAPI(SUCCEED);
} /* H5HG_clear() */


/*-------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Function:      H5HG_alloc
 *
 * Purpose: Given a heap with enough free space, this function will split
 *          the free space to make a new empty heap object and initialize
 *          the header.  SIZE is the exact size of the object data to be
 *          stored. It will be increased to make room for the object
 *          header and then rounded up for alignment.
 *
 * Return:  Success:    The heap object ID of the new object.
 *
 *          Failure:    0
 *
 * Programmer:    Robb Matzke
 *              Friday, March 27, 1998
 *
 * Modifications:
 *
 *-------------------------------------------------------------------------
 */
static unsigned
H5HG_alloc (H5F_t *f, H5HG_heap_t *heap, int cwfsno, size_t size)
{
    unsigned      idx;
    uint8_t *p = NULL;
    size_t  need = H5HG_SIZEOF_OBJHDR(f) + H5HG_ALIGN(size);

    FUNC_ENTER_NOAPI_NOINIT_NOFUNC(H5HG_alloc);

    /* Check args */
    assert (heap);
    assert (heap->obj[0].size>=need);

    /*
     * Find an ID for the new object. ID zero is reserved for the free space
     * object.
     */
    for (idx=1; idx<heap->nalloc; idx++) {
      if (NULL==heap->obj[idx].begin)
            break;
    }
    assert (idx < heap->nalloc);

    /* Initialize the new object */
    heap->obj[idx].nrefs = 0;
    heap->obj[idx].size = size;
    heap->obj[idx].begin = heap->obj[0].begin;
    p = heap->obj[idx].begin;
    UINT16ENCODE(p, idx);
    UINT16ENCODE(p, 0); /*nrefs*/
    UINT32ENCODE(p, 0); /*reserved*/
    H5F_ENCODE_LENGTH (f, p, size);

    /* Fix the free space object */
    if (need==heap->obj[0].size) {
      /*
       * All free space has been exhausted from this collection. Remove the
       * heap from the CWFS list.
       */
      heap->obj[0].size = 0;
      heap->obj[0].begin = NULL;
      if (cwfsno>=0) {
          f->shared->ncwfs -= 1;
          HDmemmove (f->shared->cwfs+cwfsno, f->shared->cwfs+cwfsno+1,
                   (f->shared->ncwfs-cwfsno)*sizeof(H5HG_heap_t*));
      }
            
    } else if (heap->obj[0].size-need >= H5HG_SIZEOF_OBJHDR (f)) {
      /*
       * Some free space remains and it's larger than a heap object header,
       * so write the new free heap object header to the heap.
       */
      heap->obj[0].size -= need;
      heap->obj[0].begin += need;
      p = heap->obj[0].begin;
      UINT16ENCODE(p, 0);     /*id*/
      UINT16ENCODE(p, 0);     /*nrefs*/
      UINT32ENCODE(p, 0);     /*reserved*/
      H5F_ENCODE_LENGTH (f, p, heap->obj[0].size);
      assert(H5HG_ISALIGNED(heap->obj[0].size));
            
    } else {
      /*
       * Some free space remains but it's smaller than a heap object header,
       * so we don't write the header.
       */
      heap->obj[0].size -= need;
      heap->obj[0].begin += need;
      assert(H5HG_ISALIGNED(heap->obj[0].size));
    }

    heap->cache_info.dirty = 1;
    FUNC_LEAVE_NOAPI(idx);
}


/*-------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Function:      H5HG_insert
 *
 * Purpose: A new object is inserted into the global heap.  It will be
 *          placed in the first collection on the CWFS list which has
 *          enough free space and that collection will be advanced one
 *          position in the list.  If no collection on the CWFS list has
 *          enough space then  a new collection will be created.
 *
 *          It is legal to push a zero-byte object onto the heap to get
 *          the reference count features of heap objects.
 *
 * Return:  Success:    Non-negative, and a heap object handle returned
 *                      through the HOBJ pointer.
 *
 *          Failure:    Negative
 *
 * Programmer:    Robb Matzke
 *              Friday, March 27, 1998
 *
 * Modifications:
 *
 *-------------------------------------------------------------------------
 */
herr_t
H5HG_insert (H5F_t *f, hid_t dxpl_id, size_t size, void *obj, H5HG_t *hobj/*out*/)
{
    size_t  need;       /*total space needed for object           */
    int     cwfsno;
    unsigned      idx;
    H5HG_heap_t   *heap = NULL;
    herr_t      ret_value=SUCCEED;       /* Return value */
    
    FUNC_ENTER_NOAPI(H5HG_insert, FAIL);

    /* Check args */
    assert (f);
    assert (0==size || obj);
    assert (hobj);

    if (0==(f->intent & H5F_ACC_RDWR))
      HGOTO_ERROR (H5E_HEAP, H5E_WRITEERROR, FAIL, "no write intent on file");

    /* Find a large enough collection on the CWFS list */
    need = H5HG_SIZEOF_OBJHDR(f) + H5HG_ALIGN(size);
    for (cwfsno=0; cwfsno<f->shared->ncwfs; cwfsno++) {
      if (f->shared->cwfs[cwfsno]->obj[0].size>=need) {
          /*
           * Found. Move the collection forward in the CWFS list.
           */
          heap = f->shared->cwfs[cwfsno];
          if (cwfsno>0) {
            H5HG_heap_t *tmp = f->shared->cwfs[cwfsno];
            f->shared->cwfs[cwfsno] = f->shared->cwfs[cwfsno-1];
            f->shared->cwfs[cwfsno-1] = tmp;
            --cwfsno;
          }
          break;
      }
    }

    /*
     * If we didn't find any collection with enough free space then allocate a
     * new collection large enough for the message plus the collection header.
     */
    if (cwfsno>=f->shared->ncwfs) {
      if (NULL==(heap=H5HG_create (f, dxpl_id, need+H5HG_SIZEOF_HDR (f))))
          HGOTO_ERROR (H5E_HEAP, H5E_CANTINIT, FAIL, "unable to allocate a global heap collection");
      assert (f->shared->ncwfs>0);
      assert (f->shared->cwfs[0]==heap);
      assert (f->shared->cwfs[0]->obj[0].size >= need);
      cwfsno = 0;
    }
    
    /* Split the free space to make room for the new object */
    idx = H5HG_alloc (f, heap, cwfsno, size);
    assert (idx>0);
    
    /* Copy data into the heap */
    if(size>0) {
        HDmemcpy(heap->obj[idx].begin+H5HG_SIZEOF_OBJHDR(f), obj, size);
        HDmemset(heap->obj[idx].begin+H5HG_SIZEOF_OBJHDR(f)+size, 0,
                 need-(H5HG_SIZEOF_OBJHDR(f)+size));
    } /* end if */
    heap->cache_info.dirty = TRUE;

    /* Return value */
    hobj->addr = heap->addr;
    hobj->idx = idx;

done:
    FUNC_LEAVE_NOAPI(ret_value);
}

#ifdef NOT_YET

/*-------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Function:      H5HG_peek
 *
 * Purpose: Given an ID for a global heap object return a pointer to the
 *          beginning of that object.  This is intended for quick and
 *          dirty access to the object; otherwise use H5HG_read().
 *
 * Return:  Success:    Ptr directly into the H5AC layer for the
 *                      specified object of the global heap.  The
 *                      pointer is guaranteed to be valid only until
 *                      some other hdf5 library function is called.
 *
 *          Failure:    NULL
 *
 * Programmer:    Robb Matzke
 *              Monday, March 30, 1998
 *
 * Modifications:
 *
 *-------------------------------------------------------------------------
 */
static void *
H5HG_peek (H5F_t *f, hid_t dxpl_id, H5HG_t *hobj)
{
    H5HG_heap_t   *heap = NULL;
    void    *ret_value;
    int     i;
    
    FUNC_ENTER_NOAPI(H5HG_peek, NULL);

    /* Check args */
    assert (f);
    assert (hobj);

    /* Load the heap and return a pointer to the object */
    if (NULL==(heap=H5AC_find(f, dxpl_id, H5AC_GHEAP, hobj->addr, NULL, NULL)))
      HGOTO_ERROR (H5E_HEAP, H5E_CANTLOAD, NULL, "unable to load heap");
    assert (hobj->idx>0 && hobj->idx<heap->nalloc);
    ret_value = heap->obj[hobj->idx].begin + H5HG_SIZEOF_OBJHDR (f);
    assert (ret_value);

    /*
     * Advance the heap in the CWFS list.  We might have done this already
     * with the H5AC_find(), but it won't hurt to do it twice.
     */
    if (heap->obj[0].begin) {
      for (i=0; i<f->shared->ncwfs; i++) {
          if (f->shared->cwfs[i]==heap) {
            if (i) {
                f->shared->cwfs[i] = f->shared->cwfs[i-1];
                f->shared->cwfs[i-1] = heap;
            }
            break;
          }
      }
    }
    
done:
    FUNC_LEAVE_NOAPI(ret_value);
}
#endif /* NOT_YET */


/*-------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Function:      H5HG_read
 *
 * Purpose: Reads the specified global heap object into the buffer OBJECT
 *          supplied by the caller.  If the caller doesn't supply a
 *          buffer then one will be allocated.  The buffer should be
 *          large enough to hold the result.
 *
 * Return:  Success:    The buffer containing the result.
 *
 *          Failure:    NULL
 *
 * Programmer:    Robb Matzke
 *              Monday, March 30, 1998
 *
 * Modifications:
 *
 *-------------------------------------------------------------------------
 */
void *
H5HG_read (H5F_t *f, hid_t dxpl_id, H5HG_t *hobj, void *object/*out*/)
{
    H5HG_heap_t   *heap = NULL;
    int     i;
    size_t  size;
    uint8_t *p = NULL;
    void    *ret_value;
    
    FUNC_ENTER_NOAPI(H5HG_read, NULL);

    /* Check args */
    assert (f);
    assert (hobj);

    /* Load the heap */
    if (NULL==(heap=H5AC_find(f, dxpl_id, H5AC_GHEAP, hobj->addr, NULL, NULL)))
      HGOTO_ERROR (H5E_HEAP, H5E_CANTLOAD, NULL, "unable to load heap");
    assert (hobj->idx>0 && hobj->idx<heap->nalloc);
    assert (heap->obj[hobj->idx].begin);
    size = heap->obj[hobj->idx].size;
    p = heap->obj[hobj->idx].begin + H5HG_SIZEOF_OBJHDR (f);
    if (!object && NULL==(object = H5MM_malloc (size)))
      HGOTO_ERROR (H5E_RESOURCE, H5E_NOSPACE, NULL, "memory allocation failed");
    HDmemcpy (object, p, size);

    /*
     * Advance the heap in the CWFS list.  We might have done this already
     * with the H5AC_find(), but it won't hurt to do it twice.
     */
    if (heap->obj[0].begin) {
      for (i=0; i<f->shared->ncwfs; i++) {
          if (f->shared->cwfs[i]==heap) {
            if (i) {
                f->shared->cwfs[i] = f->shared->cwfs[i-1];
                f->shared->cwfs[i-1] = heap;
            }
            break;
          }
      }
    }

    /* Set return value */
    ret_value=object;

done:
    FUNC_LEAVE_NOAPI(ret_value);
}


/*-------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Function:      H5HG_link
 *
 * Purpose: Adjusts the link count for a global heap object by adding
 *          ADJUST to the current value.  This function will fail if the
 *          new link count would overflow.  Nothing special happens when
 *          the link count reaches zero; in order for a heap object to be
 *          removed one must call H5HG_remove().
 *
 * Return:  Success:    Number of links present after the adjustment.
 *
 *          Failure:    Negative
 *
 * Programmer:    Robb Matzke
 *              Monday, March 30, 1998
 *
 * Modifications:
 *
 *-------------------------------------------------------------------------
 */
int
H5HG_link (H5F_t *f, hid_t dxpl_id, const H5HG_t *hobj, int adjust)
{
    H5HG_heap_t *heap = NULL;
    int ret_value;              /* Return value */
    
    FUNC_ENTER_NOAPI(H5HG_link, FAIL);
    
    /* Check args */
    assert (f);
    assert (hobj);
    if (0==(f->intent & H5F_ACC_RDWR))
      HGOTO_ERROR (H5E_HEAP, H5E_WRITEERROR, FAIL, "no write intent on file");

    /* Load the heap */
    if (NULL==(heap=H5AC_find(f, dxpl_id, H5AC_GHEAP, hobj->addr, NULL, NULL)))
      HGOTO_ERROR (H5E_HEAP, H5E_CANTLOAD, FAIL, "unable to load heap");
    assert (hobj->idx>0 && hobj->idx<heap->nalloc);
    assert (heap->obj[hobj->idx].begin);
    if (heap->obj[hobj->idx].nrefs+adjust<0)
      HGOTO_ERROR (H5E_HEAP, H5E_BADRANGE, FAIL, "new link count would be out of range");
    if (heap->obj[hobj->idx].nrefs+adjust>H5HG_MAXLINK)
      HGOTO_ERROR (H5E_HEAP, H5E_BADVALUE, FAIL, "new link count would be out of range");
    heap->obj[hobj->idx].nrefs += adjust;
    if (adjust)
        heap->cache_info.dirty = TRUE;

    /* Set return value */
    ret_value=heap->obj[hobj->idx].nrefs;

done:
    FUNC_LEAVE_NOAPI(ret_value);
}


/*-------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Function:      H5HG_remove
 *
 * Purpose: Removes the specified object from the global heap.
 *
 * Return:  Non-negative on success/Negative on failure
 *
 * Programmer:    Robb Matzke
 *              Monday, March 30, 1998
 *
 * Modifications:
 *
 *-------------------------------------------------------------------------
 */
herr_t
H5HG_remove (H5F_t *f, hid_t dxpl_id, H5HG_t *hobj)
{
    uint8_t *p=NULL, *obj_start=NULL;
    H5HG_heap_t   *heap = NULL;
    size_t  need;
    int     i;
    unsigned      u;
    herr_t      ret_value=SUCCEED;       /* Return value */
    
    FUNC_ENTER_NOAPI(H5HG_remove, FAIL);

    /* Check args */
    assert (f);
    assert (hobj);
    if (0==(f->intent & H5F_ACC_RDWR))
        HGOTO_ERROR (H5E_HEAP, H5E_WRITEERROR, FAIL, "no write intent on file");

    /* Load the heap */
    if (NULL==(heap=H5AC_find(f, dxpl_id, H5AC_GHEAP, hobj->addr, NULL, NULL)))
        HGOTO_ERROR (H5E_HEAP, H5E_CANTLOAD, FAIL, "unable to load heap");
    assert (hobj->idx>0 && hobj->idx<heap->nalloc);
    assert (heap->obj[hobj->idx].begin);
    obj_start = heap->obj[hobj->idx].begin;
    /* Include object header size */
    need = H5HG_ALIGN(heap->obj[hobj->idx].size)+H5HG_SIZEOF_OBJHDR(f);
    
    /* Move the new free space to the end of the heap */
    for (u=0; u<heap->nalloc; u++) {
        if (heap->obj[u].begin > heap->obj[hobj->idx].begin)
            heap->obj[u].begin -= need;
    }
    if (NULL==heap->obj[0].begin) {
        heap->obj[0].begin = heap->chunk + (heap->size-need);
        heap->obj[0].size = need;
        heap->obj[0].nrefs = 0;
    } else {
        heap->obj[0].size += need;
    }
    HDmemmove (obj_start, obj_start+need,
             heap->size-((obj_start+need)-heap->chunk));
    if (heap->obj[0].size>=H5HG_SIZEOF_OBJHDR (f)) {
        p = heap->obj[0].begin;
        UINT16ENCODE(p, 0); /*id*/
        UINT16ENCODE(p, 0); /*nrefs*/
        UINT32ENCODE(p, 0); /*reserved*/
        H5F_ENCODE_LENGTH (f, p, heap->obj[0].size);
    }
    HDmemset (heap->obj+hobj->idx, 0, sizeof(H5HG_obj_t));
    heap->cache_info.dirty = 1;

    if (heap->obj[0].size+H5HG_SIZEOF_HDR(f)==heap->size) {
        /*
         * The collection is empty. Remove it from the CWFS list and return it
         * to the file free list.
         */
        heap->cache_info.dirty = FALSE;
        H5_CHECK_OVERFLOW(heap->size,size_t,hsize_t);
        H5MF_xfree(f, H5FD_MEM_GHEAP, dxpl_id, heap->addr, (hsize_t)heap->size);
        H5AC_flush (f, dxpl_id, H5AC_GHEAP, heap->addr, H5F_FLUSH_INVALIDATE);
        heap = NULL;
    } else {
        /*
         * If the heap is in the CWFS list then advance it one position.  The
         * H5AC_find() might have done that too, but that's okay.  If the
         * heap isn't on the CWFS list then add it to the end.
         */
        for (i=0; i<f->shared->ncwfs; i++) {
            if (f->shared->cwfs[i]==heap) {
                if (i) {
                    f->shared->cwfs[i] = f->shared->cwfs[i-1];
                    f->shared->cwfs[i-1] = heap;
                }
            break;
            }
        }
        if (i>=f->shared->ncwfs) {
            f->shared->ncwfs = MIN (f->shared->ncwfs+1, H5HG_NCWFS);
            f->shared->cwfs[f->shared->ncwfs-1] = heap;
        }
    }
    
done:
    FUNC_LEAVE_NOAPI(ret_value);
}


/*-------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Function:      H5HG_debug
 *
 * Purpose: Prints debugging information about a global heap collection.
 *
 * Return:  Non-negative on success/Negative on failure
 *
 * Programmer:    Robb Matzke
 *          matzke@llnl.gov
 *          Mar 27, 1998
 *
 * Modifications:
 *          Robb Matzke, 1999-07-28
 *          The ADDR argument is passed by value.
 *
 *              Robb Matzke, LLNL, 2003-06-05
 *              The size does not include the object header, just the data.
 *-------------------------------------------------------------------------
 */
herr_t
H5HG_debug(H5F_t *f, hid_t dxpl_id, haddr_t addr, FILE *stream, int indent,
        int fwidth)
{
    unsigned            u, nused, maxobj;
    unsigned            j, k;
    H5HG_heap_t         *h = NULL;
    char          buf[64];
    uint8_t       *p = NULL;
    herr_t      ret_value=SUCCEED;       /* Return value */

    FUNC_ENTER_NOAPI(H5HG_debug, FAIL);

    /* check arguments */
    assert(f);
    assert(H5F_addr_defined (addr));
    assert(stream);
    assert(indent >= 0);
    assert(fwidth >= 0);

    if (NULL == (h = H5AC_find(f, dxpl_id, H5AC_GHEAP, addr, NULL, NULL)))
      HGOTO_ERROR(H5E_HEAP, H5E_CANTLOAD, FAIL, "unable to load global heap collection");
    fprintf(stream, "%*sGlobal Heap Collection...\n", indent, "");
    fprintf(stream, "%*s%-*s %d\n", indent, "", fwidth,
          "Dirty:",
          (int)(h->cache_info.dirty));
    fprintf(stream, "%*s%-*s %lu\n", indent, "", fwidth,
          "Total collection size in file:",
          (unsigned long)(h->size));

    for (u=1, nused=0, maxobj=0; u<h->nalloc; u++) {
      if (h->obj[u].begin) {
          nused++;
          if (u>maxobj) maxobj = u;
      }
    }
    fprintf (stream, "%*s%-*s %u/%lu/", indent, "", fwidth,
           "Objects defined/allocated/max:",
           nused, (unsigned long)h->nalloc);
    fprintf (stream, nused ? "%u\n": "NA\n", maxobj);

    fprintf (stream, "%*s%-*s %lu\n", indent, "", fwidth,
           "Free space:",
           (unsigned long)(h->obj[0].size));

    for (u=1; u<h->nalloc; u++) {
      if (h->obj[u].begin) {
          sprintf (buf, "Object %u", u);
          fprintf (stream, "%*s%s\n", indent, "", buf);
          fprintf (stream, "%*s%-*s %d\n", indent+3, "", MIN(fwidth-3, 0),
                 "Reference count:",
                 h->obj[u].nrefs);
          fprintf (stream, "%*s%-*s %lu/%lu\n", indent+3, "",
                 MIN(fwidth-3, 0),
                 "Size of object body:",
                 (unsigned long)(h->obj[u].size),
                 (unsigned long)H5HG_ALIGN(h->obj[u].size));
          p = h->obj[u].begin + H5HG_SIZEOF_OBJHDR (f);
          for (j=0; j<h->obj[u].size; j+=16) {
            fprintf (stream, "%*s%04d: ", indent+6, "", j);
            for (k=0; k<16; k++) {
                if (8==k) fprintf (stream, " ");
                if (j+k<h->obj[u].size) {
                  fprintf (stream, "%02x ", p[j+k]);
                } else {
                  HDfputs("   ", stream);
                }
            }
            for (k=0; k<16 && j+k<h->obj[u].size; k++) {
                if (8==k) fprintf (stream, " ");
                HDfputc(p[j+k]>' ' && p[j+k]<='~' ? p[j+k] : '.', stream);
            }
            fprintf (stream, "\n");
          }
      }
    }
    
done:
    FUNC_LEAVE_NOAPI(ret_value);
}

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